Review of polycystic ovarian diseases

Shalini Karunanithi., Vijaya Bharathi Rajkishore and Radha Ramalingam

Polycystic ovarian syndrome or Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOS or PCOD) in humans is also known as the Stein-Leventhal syndrome. It is a hormonal endocrine disorder of child bearing age recognised as the primary cause of infertility. PCOS is characterised by multiple small ovarian cysts less than 1cm, LH is raised and LH/FSH ratio is ≥2. Endocrine and reproductive symptoms of PCOS are hyperandrogenism (Hirsutism, acne and alopecia), irregular menstrual cycles and sub - fertility. The diagnosis of PCOS depends on establishing key features while ruling out other hyperandrogenic or oligo-ovulatory disorders. Polycystic ovarian disease is a serious disorder in women in which are in fact small undeveloped follicles. Over time there is thickening and fibrosis of the ovarian casing which prevents any follicles which do ripen from being released. PCOD is associated with anovulation and menstrual irregularities, infertility and insulin resistance. As the condition progresses it may become associated with dysfunctional uterine bleeding, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, endometrial cancer, high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease.

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Shalini Karunanithi et al, 2017., Review of polycystic ovarian diseases, International Journal of Current Science and Technology, Vol.5, Issue, 4, pp. 390-394